Date Rape Drug Adulterated Beverage Testing Analysis

Version 1.2 Indicator Formulations
Prepared by:

James McCafferty

Southern Research Group
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309

December 17, 2002

© Copyright 2002 Southern Research Group – All Rights Reserved
Division of RJN Industries, Inc.

This report is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Ketamine test indicators utilized by Drink Safe Technology.

Sixty popular beverages were selected for testing with the aforementioned date rape drugs. The chosen beverages cover a broad variety of drink types such as fruit based, colas and sodas, wines, hard liquors, mixed drinks, beers, tea, coffee and different bottled waters.

The beverages were randomly selected for testing from the following master list:

Coca-Cola

Orange slice

Coffee (cream/sugar)

Apple Juice

Dasani Water

Vitamin Water (red)

Budweiser

Amstel Light

Mikes Hard Lemonade

Amoretto

Cosmopolitan

Gin Martini

Whiskey Sour

Malibu & Pineapple

2/Cabernet Sauvignon

2/Chardonnay

2/Zinfandel

Champagne

Vodka Martini

Diet Coke

7-UP

Tea (plain)

Cranberry Juice

Water Evian

Red Bull

Bud Lite

Heineken

Bartles & James Original

Jagermeister

Margarita

Screwdriver

Sex on the Beach

Mai Tai

Pepsi

Mountain Dew red

Kool Aid cherry

Snapple Iced Tea

Sea Breeze

Perrier Water

Miller Genuine Draft

Corona

Whiskey Jack Daniel's

Martini & Rossi

Fuzzy Navel

Bay breeze

Rum & Coke

Bloody Mary

Diet Pepsi

Coffee (plain)

Orange Juice

Arizona Ice Tea

Gatorade (green)

Coors Light

Bacardi Silver

Bailey's Irish Cream

Long Island Ice Tea

White Wine Spritzer

All mixed drink recipe formulations were obtained from www.webtender.com and/or www.barflies.com. All beverages as well as the ingredients for all mixed drinks were purchased at random from stores open to the public.

Testing Protocol

Testing of the beverages was accomplished through an in-depth 5 step process:

Step #1 The manufacture of uniform Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Ketamine indicator test cards.
Step #2 The drug response calibration of the test cards.
Step #3 Beverage preparations and set up.
Step #4 The application of non-adulterated beverages to the test cards.
Step #5 The application of Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Ketamine adulterated drinks to the test cards.

Step #1 The manufacture of uniform Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Ketamine test cards.

The following test card was designed using the same paper substrate that the current production test units are manufactured with.

The top section is for card calibration with controls
Plain Drink = test area for non-adulterated beverages on both indicators.
P.C. = Pantone Color
A. Drink
= adulterated drink test area.
Time = Time for a positive response to be observed.
S. # = test solution number for the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) controlled adulterated drink.

The bottom section is for indicator solution codes, beverage name, date, and experiment number.

The drug test indicators were applied uniformly to each test card. These were taken from actual production batch retains. The Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) indicator was from batch T131018020 and was applied to the test area at .0055 grams/cm2. The Ketamine indicator was batch KA101802 and was applied at .0045 grams/ cm2. All test cards were allowed to dry thoroughly.

Step #2 The drug response calibration of the test cards

Before use, each test card was calibrated with known drug standards. This step authenticated the viability of the test card to respond properly. These standards have been used regularly as controls throughout the development of the test indicators so their reaction responses are well understood.

The drug control standards used were:
GHB 011102G .42% (by weight)
GHB 012402G#24 .43%
GHB 053102GHB STD 1.26% (adulterated drink standard level)
Ketamine 121101K 1.96% (by weight)
Ketamine 032002K .137%
Ketamine 053102 STD .416% (adulterated drink standard level)

Each control standard was then applied to its corresponding numbered test area. These were applied by dragging the control dropper across the indicator test area. This created a 1.35 cm2 reaction area on the test card and dispensed an average of .02 grams of control test solution. In order for a test card to be approved for beverage analysis the following color pattern had to be present.

GHB 011102G Medium Blue
GHB 012402G#24 No reaction
GHB 053102GHB STD Heavy Blue

Ketamine 121101K Heavy Blue
Ketamine 032002K Light Blue
Ketamine 053102 STD Medium Blue

All drug control solutions were prepared in proprietary solutions to depict certain types of beverage formulations. This is why 012402G#24 gave no reaction.

Background Data and Protocols

Beverage adulteration testing was set at the following concentration levels:

GHB = 3 grams mixed into 8 fluid ounce beverage
Ketamine = 1 gram mixed into 8 fluid ounce beverage

All beverages were tested at their serving temperatures. Hot drinks such as coffee and tea at 97oC (206oF), room temperature drinks at 25oC (77oF), and cold drinks at ~4oC (38-39oF). The chemical make up of the drinks tested was predominately water based. Certain types of drinks have ancillary chemicals that are in higher detectable concentrations such as sodas (sugars) and vodka (ethyl alcohol) but these, too, are still water based formulations. Water is at its densest at 3.98oC (~39oF). This was the serving temperature used for the tested cold drinks. At this temperature the universal water constant 1 gram = 1 milliliter is relevant.

Even though the tested drinks have theoretical density differences and, therefore, weight differences per volume, to make the testing beverage measurements uniform the constant 1 gram = 1 ml was applied for all measurements. Accordingly, the following measurements were considered to be applicable:
1 fluid ounce = 29.5 grams = 29.5 mls
8 fluid ounce = 236 grams = 236 mls (beverage size)

GHB = 126.1 molecular weight

3 grams GHB / 8 ounce beverage (adulteration level standard)
3 grams GHB / 236 mls beverage
3 grams GHB / 236 grams beverage
.0127 grams GHB / 1 ml beverage
.0127 grams GHB / 1 gram beverage
.374 grams GHB / 1 ounce beverage
.374 grams GHB / 29.5 mls beverage
.374 grams GHB / 29.5 grams beverage

GHB molarity = .099M *
3 grams/ 126.1 molecular weight = .0237 moles GHB / 236 mls beverage

Ketamine = 274.2 molecular weight

1 gram Ketamine / 8 ounce beverage (adulteration level standard)
1 gram Ketamine / 236 mls beverage
1 gram Ketamine / 236 grams beverage
.0042 grams Ketamine / 1 ml beverage
.0042 grams Ketamine / 1 gram beverage
.124 grams Ketamine / 1 ounce beverage
.124 grams Ketamine / 29.5 mls beverage
.124 grams Ketamine / 29.5 grams beverage

Ketamine molarity = .015M *
1 gram/ 274.2 molecular weight = .0036 moles Ketamine / 236 mls beverage

* Theoretically molarity is defined as “moles/liter of solution”. By adding the drugs to a known volume, the volume has slightly increased which would result in a slightly lower molar value. For example Ketamine theoretical molar concentration would be limited to 0036 moles/236.96 mls (this increase allows for the maximum volume change).
1000/236.96=4.220 4.220X.0036= .01519 M
GHB theoretical molar concentration would be limited to .0237 moles/238.89 mls (this increase allows for the maximum volume change)
1000/238.89=4.186 4.186X.0237=.09920 M

Ice was used as called for in the beverage. The drink would be made and allowed to sit for 3 to 5 minutes. The beverage would then be decanted off into the 3 sample containers and then adulterated. This way the requested testing adulteration concentration would be maintained. Another way to think about ice is that in solid form it actually increases the concentration of the adulterated drug in the drink liquid. For example, you order the exact drink (a soft drink) twice - one with ice, one without. They come to the table in identical 8 ounce glasses and are at the same volume level. The glass with ice has 4 large one ounce ice cubes. Effectively, there is only 4 ounces of soda in that glass while the ice free one has 8 ounces of soda. If someone slipped 1 gram of Ketamine into each glass the one with the ice would be twice as concentrated. This concentration is way above the requested lower test limit. It would not be until all the ice has melted that the two glasses would have the same concentration.

Beverages that had to be formulated from recipes were made exactly to the individual drink specifications. In other words, if the recipe called for some type of fruit garnish (cherry, olive, lemon wedge, etc.), it was included in the drink.

Step #3 Beverage Preparations and Set Up

In order as to minimize the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) drug disposal problem, all beverage amounts were scaled down into 3 separate test solutions of 1 fluid ounce (29.5 grams) each. These consisted of the same drink being divided and weighed into three separately labeled sample bottles, Plain (non-adulterated control), G (GHB adulterated), and K (Ketamine adulterated). In the ‘G’ bottle would be 29.5 grams of beverage and .37 grams of GHB. In the ‘K’ bottle would be 29.5 grams of beverage and .12 grams of Ketamine. The Plain bottle would be used as a control. Serving temperature was maintained during testing.

Step #4 The application of non-adulterated plain beverages to the test cards

As demonstrated with test card 102802A, Plain Coca-Cola was applied 3 times to each test indicator for a total of .11 grams per 6 test tracks. This means each area received about .0183 grams plain beverage in its 1.25 cm2 test track with a drink stirrer. The beverage was then allowed to react. No blue color change indicated that the drink control did not react with the indicators. A reaction to a blue hue would have been judged a false positive. In fact the natural coloration of the drink left a faint tan hue on the indicators. The test result color was then recorded as a Pantone color.

Step #5 The application of GHB and Ketamine adulterated beverages

Using an ordinary drink stirrer straw, a sample of GHB adulterated beverage was then applied in 3 tracks to it’s assigned test area. Each track received an average of .03 grams beverage over its 1.25 cm2 area. This test was then timed for the visual presence of a definitive blue color indicating a positive drug recognition by the GHB indicator. The test result color was then recorded as a Pantone color.

The same technique was used for the application of the Ketamine adulterated beverages. Application coverage averaged the same as the GHB adulterated coverage. The test tracks were then timed for the visual presence of a definitive blue color indicating a positive drug recognition by the Ketamine indicator. The test result color was then recorded as a Pantone color.

Multiple test tracks were chosen for each test to provide a thorough visual means of recognition. This made the visual Pass / Fail identification easier to ascertain. A definitive positive test would be recorded by either indicator creating a blue hue in the tested track area.

Positive GHB observed colors were between Pantone 341U (deep teal) to Pantone 297U (sky blue).

Positive Ketamine observed colors were between Pantone 324U (very light blue/green) to Pantone 283U (light purple/blue).

The natural colors of the beverages demonstrated only slight color interference. The natural color of the drink would move the blue response in the direction of the drinks natural color. This is demonstrated in experiment #111502B Cabernet Sauvignon #2. The natural red color of the wine moved the GHB color response to 341U (deep teal) and the Ketamine response to 283U (light purple/blue). Red + Blue = Purple.

Concluding Remarks:

 

 

It was noticed that after performing several tests that there were two types of Positive responses demonstrated by the GHB test indicator.

These were characterized as:
  1. Definitive Positive = The presence of a blue color forming by the reaction of the drug to the indicator.
  2. Qualified Positive = The presence of a color completely different from the control color establishing a difference in the chemistry of the adulterated drink when compared to the plain drink.

An excellent example of this is experiment #112002D, Mai Tai. The drink in the safe plain configuration turns the GHB indicator to a yellow. The GHB adulterated sample displays a green color. The difference between the two signifies that there is a chemical difference between them. Accordingly, it could be considered a Qualified Positive response.

 

Notice the distinct difference in color between the plain Mai Tai and the GHB adulterated test tracks. This response turned out to be typical with high fruit concentration type drinks.

Ketamine always demonstrated as a definitive blue response. No qualified type of response was observed.

Only two beverages, the Long Island Ice Tea and the Margarita demonstrated too close of a color comparison in the Qualified Positive category to safely say that the beverage was not adulterated.

All the tests were run using identical techniques of beverage application and letting the test cards sit flat on the lab bench for a timed color observation. It was observed that in using this approach certain beverages took longer than others to react. This turned out to be a factor of the amount of beverage applied and its chemical make up. High sugar / syrup beverages took the longest times to dry and develop to a blue color.

In public, the time to reaction could be shortened by:

  1. Blowing on the card
  2. Fanning the card
  3. Tilting the card 90 degrees so the microscopic extra non-adsorbed beverage would run to the edge of the test area. (best technique)

These types of actions have demonstrated up to a 50% decrease in reaction time length. It should be noted that there is a minimum time needed for the reaction to develop properly. This is a microscopic chemical reaction taking place on the card and it must have time to complete its reactions in order for full color changes to be observed. The dry drug test indicator spots must be wetted by the beverage, then allowed to react with the drug in the beverage, and then dry to form a crystal whose color can signify the presence of the drug.

It was observed especially with some Ketamine results that a minimum of time was needed for a well defined visual result to be observed. Drinks of high chemical purity and high alcohol content such as vodka or martinis could evaporate so fast that the chemical identification reaction had insufficient time to react and therefore gave fainter color responses than slower to dry beverages.

Only one double false positive (in the same drink for both drugs) response was observed. In this instance the natural chemistry of the drink caused the indicators to react without any drugs present. It was Bailey’s Irish Cream.

The test indicators have demonstrated that they can reliably detect the presence of GHB and Ketamine in a wide variety of beverage types. The GHB indicator has shown that it has the capability of qualifying a drink’s “safeness” by changing color away from what the plain “safe” beverage would be normally if adulterated with GHB. In order to know this ahead of time an individual would simply test the beverage at home to see what a plain response should be. If a test was then done with the same beverage bought in public or outside of the home environment and different colorization occurred, the user would then be aware that the chemistry of the beverage was not normal. This would indicate to the user that there was a potential for some type of adulteration and they should exe

The chemical sensitivity of the drug test indicators has proven to be rather extraordinary. Beverage test samples averaged .03 grams per track. This means that with only .000376 grams of GHB or .000126 grams of Ketamine present in the samples, a positive reaction response was able to develop.

The testing of the beverages was performed as accurately as possible. Certain judgments were made to facilitate testing and the expense that goes along with it. For example, molarity was calculated on a theoretical maximum volume change. We could have made real volumetric solutions using the drugs. This would have used over 4 grams of Ketamine and 12 grams of GHB and produced 2 liters of DEA controlled waste to dispose of. The difference between the theoretical and the real world number would be no more than .0006M. Another example is in the control concentration of Ketamine 053102 STD .416% by weight. The true standard by weight (1 gram Ketamine into 236 grams beverage) would be .421 %. We chose to use the .416% solution since we had been using it for 6 months and knew how it behaved. Being .005% less in concentration enabled us to develop a more sensitive Ketamine indicator.

Table:

Click here to view the Date Rape Drug Adultered Beverage

Definitive Blue Responses
GHB Qualified Responses

Beverage Formulations:

Rum & Coke
Rum = 4.0 ounces
Coca-Cola = 8 ounces

White Wine Spritzer
White Wine = 6 ounces
Club Soda = 2 ounces

Vodka Martini
Vodka = 1.5 ounces
Vermouth = .76 ounces
Olive = 1
Ice, stirred then removed

Cosmopolitan
Vodka = 1 ounce
Triple Sec = .5 ounce
Lime Juice = .5 ounce
Cranberry Juice = .5 ounce
Lime Wedge = 1
Ice, shake drink

Kool-Aid
Kool-Aid = 4 ounces
Water = 64 ounces

Tea, hot
Tea = 1 bag
Water = 8 ounces

Coffee, hot (black)
Ground Coffee = 1 ounce
Water = 48 ounces

Coffee, hot (cream & sugar)
Coffee = 8 ounces
Sugar = .35 ounce
Cream = .5 ounce

Chardonnay #1
2001 Vendange

Chardonnay #2
Glen Ellen

Cabernet Sauvignon #1
Ernest & Julio Gallo Twin Valley

Cabernet Sauvignon #2
Frei Brothers Redwood Creek

White Zinfandel #1
Ernest & Julio Gallo Twin Valley

White Zinfandel #2
Turning Leaf Reserve 2001

Martini (traditional)
Gin = 1.5 ounces
Dry Vermouth = .75 ounce
Olive = 1

Screwdriver
Vodka = 2 ounces
Orange Juice = 3 ounces
Ice = 3 cubes

Sex On The Beach
Vodka = 1 ounce
Peach Schnapps = .75 ounce
Cranberry Juice = 3 ounces
Grapefruit juice = 3 ounces

Malibu & Pineapple
Malibu Rum = 2 ounces
Pineapple juice = 2 ounces
Ice = 2 cubes

Sea Breeze
Vodka = 1.5 ounces
Cranberry Juice = 4 ounces
Grapefruit juice = 1 ounce
Ice = 2 cubes

Fuzzy Navel
Peach Schnapps = 1.5 ounces
Orange juice = 4.5 ounces
Ice = fill Collins glass

Bay Breeze
Stoli Vodka = 3 ounces
Cranberry Juice = 1 ounce
Pineapple Juice = 1 ounce
Ice = 3 ounces

Whiskey Sour
Whiskey = 1.5 ounces
Sour Mix = 3 ounces
Ice = 3 cubes
Cherry = 1

Margarita
Tequila = 1.5 ounces
Triple Sec = .5 ounce
Lime juice = 1 ounce
Salt = trace (represents rim salt)

Mai Tai
Rum = 1 ounce
Orgeat Syrup = .5 ounce
Triple Sec = .5 ounce
Sweet & Sour = 1.5 ounces
Cherry = 1

Bloody Mary
Vodka = 1.5 ounces
Tomato juice = 3 ounces
Lemon juice = .1 ounce
Worcestershire sauce = .1 ounce
Tabasco sauce = 2-3 drops
Lime Wedge = 1
Salt = .03 ounce
Ice = 4 cubes


Long Island Ice Tea
Gin = .5 ounce
Rum = .5 ounce
Vodka = .5 ounce
Triple Sec = .5 ounce
Tequila = .5 ounce
Lemon juice = 1.5 ounces
Coca-Cola = .33 ounce

 

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